Thehorse.com - Full Article
By Alexandra Beckstett, The Horse Managing Editor
Oct 11, 2013
The physiological effects of horses' head and neck positions (HNP) while being ridden is a topic of fierce debate. And until now, there hasn't been any data on head and neck position's effect on muscle activity, especially that of the muscles controlling these positions.
Kathrin Kienapfel, MA, a doctoral student at Ruhr-University Bochum, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, recently evaluated electromyography (EMG, a tool that allows researchers to read muscle activity through sensors attached to the skin) activity of three major head and neck muscles when horses performed three characteristic HNPs:...
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